Article 10219

Title of the article



Kalmin Oleg Vital'evich, Doctor of medical sciences, professor, head of sub-department of human anatomy, Medical Institute, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail:
Ilyunina Ol'ga Olegovna, Assistant, sub-department of dentistry, Medical Institute, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail:
Zyul'kina Larisa Alekseevna, Doctor of medical sciences, associate professor, head of sub-department of Dentistry, Medical Institute, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), E-mail: 

Index UDK





Background. The aim of the work is to study the morphological features and individual variability of the incisal canal, nasal and incisal openings in the first adulthood.
Materials and methods. The object of the study was 174 adults of both sexes aged 21–35 years. We studied the parameters of the craniofacial complex, the size and shape of the nasal and incisal openings, the incisal canal.
Results. It is established that the incisal canal, the nasal and incisal openings of the incisal canal have a pronounced individual variability in size, shape and topography. The incisal canal can open into the nasal cavity with one, two, three or four Stensen openings; in the oral cavity - one, two or three incisal holes.
Conclusion. The values of mesio-distal and vestibular-lingual diameters of the incisal and nasal orifices are statistically significantly higher in males. Three forms of the incisal opening were identified: heart-shaped (32.18 %), drop-shaped (28.73 %) and oval (39.08 %). Bone density in the incisal area is significantly higher in females. The length of the incisal canal prevailed in males. Most often the incisal canal had a funnel-shaped and hourglass shape, the spindle-shaped and cylindrical shapes of the incisal canal were detected relatively rarely. In most cases, the incisal canal was of the type with branches of the first order and second order, less often of all was the type of the channel with branches of the third order identified. 

Key words

incisive canal, cephalometry, cone-beam computed tomography, foramen incisivum, Stensen foramen 

Download PDF

1. Arpita R. T., Krishna B., Kruthika G., Venkatesh G. N. Imaging Sci Dent. 2013, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 273–281.
2. Fukuda M., Matsunaga S., Odaka K., Oomine Y., Kasahara M., Yamamoto M., Abe S. Int J Implant Dent. 2015, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 12.
3. Wonil J., Fumitaka Y., Takeshi F., Koji M., Albert R. L. Clinical Anatomy. 2013, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 61–88.
4. Mikhaylov S. S., Chukbar A. V., Tsybul'kin A. G. Anatomiya cheloveka: uchebnik: v 2 t. [Human anatomy: textbook: in 2 volumes]. 5th ed., rev. and suppl. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media, 2011, vol. 2, 624 p. [In Russian]
5. Sapin M. R., Nikolenko V. N., Nikityuk D. B. Anatomiya cheloveka: v 2 t. [Human anatomy: in 2 volumes]. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media, 2015, vol. 2, 456 p. [In Russian]
6. Moore K. L., Dalley A. F., Agur A. M. R. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013, 1168 p.
7. Acar B., Kamburoglu K. Surg Radiol Anat. 2015, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 259–265.
8. Lakin G. F. Biometriya: ucheb. posobie dlya biol. spets. vuzov [Biometrics: tutorial for biological specialties at universities]. 4th ed., rev. and suppl. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola, 1990, 352 p. [In Russian]
9. Rebrova O. Yu. Statisticheskiy analiz meditsinskikh dannykh. Primenenie paketa prikladnykh programm STATISTICA [Statistical analysis of medical data. Application of STATISTICA software package]. Moscow: MediaSfera, 2003, 312 p. [In Russian]
10. Etoz M., Sisman Y. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2014, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 805–812.
11. Liang X., Jacobs R., Martens W., Hu Y., Adriaensens P., Quirynen M., Lambrichts I. J Clin Periodontol. 2009, vol. 36, pp. 598–603.
12. Panjnoush M., Norouzi H., Kheirandish Y., Shamshiri A. R., Mofidi N. J Dent (Tehran). 2016, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 287–294.
13. Nasseh I., Aoun G., Sokhn S. Acta Inform Med. 2017, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 34–38.


Дата создания: 06.09.2019 13:23
Дата обновления: 16.09.2019 08:18